Los trabajos de este apartado están ordenados en estos contenidos temáticos:

A/ Estado ecológico en lagos

B/ Intercalibración

C/ Definición del Estado ecológico



• 2013/ Anne Lyche-Solheim, Christian K. Feld, Sebastian Birk, Geoff Phillips, Laurence Carvalho, Giuseppe Morabito, Ute Mischke, Nigel Willby, Martin Søndergaard, Seppo Hellsten, Agnieszka Kolada, Marit Mjelde, Jürgen Böhmer, Oliver Miler, Martin T. Pusch, Christine Argillier, Erik Jeppesen, Torben L. Lauridsen y Sandra Poikane
Ecological status assessment of European lakes: a comparison of metrics for phytoplankton, macrophytes, benthic invertebrates and fish 


Data on phytoplankton, macrophytes, benthic invertebrates and fish from more than 2000 lakes in 22 European countries were used to develop and test metrics for assessing the ecological status of European lakes as required by the Water Framework Directive. The strongest and most sensitive of the 11 metrics responding to eutrophication pressure were phytoplankton chlorophyll a, a taxonomic composition trophic index and a functional traits index, the macrophyte intercalibration taxonomic composition metric and a Nordic lake fish index. Intermediate response was found for a cyanobacterial bloom intensity index (Cyano), the Ellenberg macrophyte index and a multimetric index for benthic invertebrates. The latter also responded to hydromorphological pressure. The metrics provide information on primary and secondary impacts of eutrophication in the pelagic and the littoral zone of lakes. Several of these metrics were used as common metrics in the intercalibration of national assessment systems or have been incorporated directly into the national systems. New biological metrics have been developed to assess hydromorphological pressures, based on aquatic macrophyte responses to water level fluctuations, and on macroinvertebrate responses to morphological modifications of lake shorelines. These metrics thus enable the quantification of biological impacts of hydromorphological pressures in lakes.

El texto completo de este trabajo en Clic ¡

• 2018/ Sandra Poikane, Rob Portielje, Luc Denys, Didzis Elferts, Martyn Kelly, Agnieszka Kolada,Helle Mäemets, Geoff Phillips, Martin Søndergaardi, Nigel Willby & Marcel S. van den Berg
Macrophyte assessment in European lakes: Diverse approaches but convergent views of ‘good’ ecological status


The European Water Framework Directive has been adopted by Member States to assess and manage the ecological integrity of surface waters. Specific challenges include harmonizing diverse assessment systems across Europe, linking ecological assessment to restoration measures and reaching a common view on ‘good’ ecological status.
In this study, nine national macrophyte-based approaches for assessing ecological status were compared and harmonized, using a large dataset of 539 European lakes. A macrophyte common metric, representing the average standardized view of each lake by all countries, was used to compare national methods. This was also shown to reflect the total phosphorus (r2 = 0.32), total nitrogen (r2 = 0.22) as well as chlorophyll-a (r2 = 0.35–0.38) gradients, providing a link between ecological data, stressors and management decisions.
Despite differing assessment approaches and initial differences in classification, a consensus was reached on how type-specific macrophyte assemblages change across the ecological status gradient and where ecological status boundaries should lie.
A marked decline in submerged vegetation, especially Charophyta (characterizing ‘good’ status), and an increase in abundance of free-floating plants (characterizing ‘less than good’ status) were the most significant changes along the ecological status gradient. Macrophyte communities of ‘good’ status lakes were diverse with many charophytes and several Potamogeton species. A large number of taxa occurred across the entire gradient, but only a minority dominated at ‘less than good’ status, including filamentous algae, lemnids, nymphaeids, and several elodeids (e.g., Zannichellia palustris and Elodea nuttallii). Our findings establish a ‘guiding image’ of the macrophyte community at ‘good’ ecological status in hard-water lakes of the Central-Baltic region of Europe.

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 • Documentos de la serie “Water Framework Directive Intercalibration Technical Report” personalizados para los elementos de calidad y para las distintas regiones ecológicas de Europa.
El texto completo de todos estos trabajos se pueden consultar (en inglés) a través de EU Science Hub en esta dirección Clic¡ de la Comisión Europea.

El correspondiente al fitoplancton en lagos mediterráneos:

2014 / Caridad de Hoyos, Jordi Catalan, Gerald Dörflinger, João Ferreira, Dimitra Kemitzoglou, Christophe Laplace-Treyture, José Pahissa López, Aldo Marchetto, Otilia Mihail, Giuseppe Morabito, Polina Polykarpou, Filipe Romão y Vasiliki Tsiaoussi.
JRC Technical Reports. Mediterranean Lake Phytoplankton ecological assessment methods. Ed. Sandra Poikane

El texto completo de este trabajo en Clic ¡


2003  Guidance Document No 10.  Rivers and Lakes – Typology, Reference Conditions and Classification Systems.Produced by Working Group 2.3 – REFCOND

El texto completo de este trabajo en Clic ¡

• 2015/ Sandra Poikane, Seb astianBirk, JürgenBöhmer, LaurenceCarvalho, Caridad deHoyos, HubertGassner, MartynKellyh, Anne LycheSolheim, MikkoOlin, KarinPall, GeoffPhillips, RobPortielje, David Ritterbusch, LeonardSandin, Ann-KristinSchartau, AngeloG.Solimini, Marcel vandenBerg, GeorgWolfram y WoutervandeBund
A hitchhiker’s guide to European lake ecological assessment and intercalibration


The Water Framework Directive is the first international legislation to require European countries to establish comparable ecological assessment schemes for their freshwaters. A key element in harmonising quality classification within and between Europe’s river basins is an “Intercalibration” exercise, stipulated by the WFD, to ensure that the good status boundaries in all of the biological assessment methods correspond to similar levels of anthropogenic pressure. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of this international comparison, focusing on the assessment schemes developed for freshwater lakes. Out of 82 lake ecological assessment methods reported for the comparison, 62 were successfully intercalibrated and included in the EC Decision on intercalibration, with a high proportion of phytoplankton (18), macrophyte (17) and benthic fauna (13) assessment methods. All the lake assessment methods are reviewed in this article, including the results of intercalibration. Furthermore, the current gaps and way forward to reach consistent management objectives for European lakes are discussed.

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• 2005/ Santos Cirujano, Jaume Cambra, César Gutiérrez, URS
Metodología para el establecimiento del Estado Ecológico según la Directiva Marco del Agua. Protocolos de muestreo y análisis para MACRÓFITOS

El texto completo de este trabajo Clic ¡


• Protocolos de muestreo y laboratorio -MITECO-
  • Organismos fitoplanctónicos en lagos y embalses. Protocolo de muestreo de fitoplancton en lagos y embalses. M-LE-FP-2013 
  • Organismos invertebrados bentónicos en lagos. Protocolo de muestreo y laboratorio de invertebrados bentónicos en lagos. ML-L-I-2013 
  • Otro tipo de flora acuática en lagos. Protocolo de muestreo de otro tipo de flora acuática (Macrófitos) en lagos. M-L-OFM-2013 
• Protocolos para el cálculo de índices y métricas -MITECO-
  • IBCAEL. Protocolo para el cálculo del índice de invertebrados IBCAEL en lagos. IBCAEL-2013
  • Organismos fitoplanctónicos en lagos y embalses. Protocolo de análisis y cálculo de métricas de fitoplancton en lagos y embalses. MFIT-2013 v2
  • Otro tipo de flora acuática en lagos. Protocolo de laboratorio y cálculo de métricas de otro tipo de flora acuática (Macrófitos) en lagos. OFALAM-2013 v1



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